“A Prospective, randomized, cross-over comparison of two methods of artificial insemination by donor on the incidence of conception: Intracervical insemination by straw versus cervical cap”, Human Reproduction, Vol. 12, no.9 1945-1948, 1997, Flierman, Hendrikus, et al.
This research study includes a history of ICI and IUI. This publication also highlights and reviews other historical studies of cervical caps and additional features of cervical caps:
- Prolonged exposure of the spermatozoa to the cervical mucus.
- Prevention of backflow of semen into the vagina.
- Buffering of acidic vaginal environment for the lower sperm volume commonly employed by artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID).
“Evaluation of the effect of a cervical cap device on sperm functional characteristics in vitro”, ANDROLOGIA 33, (2001), M. C. Mahony.
This article highlights the historical usages of cervical caps throughout the second half of the 20th century. It is still considered the least invasive method of aiding in fertility with the least number of risks. In the discussion section, the author continues to highlight the rational and benefits of cervical caps (simplicity, safety, and cost) as a logical first step in aiding conception versus moving too fast to the various forms of IVF.
“The cervical cap for home artificial insemination”, J. Reprod. Med., 1986, May; 31 (5):349-52, Corson, Batzer, Otis, Fee.
This article discusses a 63 couple study that had a 19% pregnancy success rate over the duration of use, yet it had a 44% success rate with couples that used the system for at least 6 months.
“Artificial insemination with fresh donor semen using the cervical cap technique: a review of 278 cases”, Obstet Gynecol. 1982 Aug;60(2):195-9, Bergquist CA, Rock JA, Miller J, Guzick DS, Wentz AC, Jones GS.
This article discusses a study of 278 patients that used fresh donor semen with a cervical cap and had positive results with a cumulative pregnancy rate of 62.5% after 6 months of use and 82.4% after 10 months.
This leads to validating the similarity of results of IUI, with a 15.5% per month success rate, and using cervical caps.
“Randomized controlled trial of cervical cap with intracervical reservoir versus standard intracervical injection to inseminate cryopreserved donor sperm”, Human Reproduction, Vol. 11, no.1, pp.84-87, 1996, C. Coulson,
E.A. McLaughlin, S. Harris, W.C.L. Ford and M.G.R. Hull.
This article highlights the use and acceptance of cervical caps as a validated tool for aiding in conception. This article also discusses historical IUI studies may have elevated results due to larger than normal semen volumes, more advance diagnostic tools used to predict optimal ovulation timing (luteinizing hormone monitoring), as well as the combination of ovarian stimulations.